1. IMAGE GUIDED BREAST FNAC/ BIOPSIES/ DRAINAGE– Breast interventions include procedures like breast biopsies, drainage of breast abscess, preoperative hookwire localisation or pretreatment marker clip placements. These are simple painless procedures done under USG guidance under local anaesthesia. They are performed with high priority to patient comfort. These are also outpatient procedures with the patient ready to leave the hospital within an hour.

2. VARICOSE VEIN ABLATION AND SCLEROTHERAPY-Varicose veins are large, swollen veins that often appear on the legs and feet. They happen when the valves in the veins do not work properly, so the blood does not flow effectively. It causes pain and swelling on prolonged standing and even non-healing ulcers. These can be managed by radiofrequency(RFA)/laser ablation of these veins thus avoiding surgeries.

3. SCLEROTHERAPY– Low flow vascular and lymphatic malformations of certain varieties are treated by direct vascular injection of sclerosants under imaging guidance. These procedures over time cause significant shrinkage of these lesions and cosmetic correction is obtained without the need for surgery which could be dangerous due to the risk of haemorrhage.

4. VASCULAR ACCESS LINE PLACEMENTS AND VENOUS SAMPLING– These procedures involve placemet of central venous lines, peripherally inserted central lines(PICC), Hickmann line, Permacath insertions in patients on chronic dialysis etc. Interventional radiologists also perform sampling from veins within the body which are used in the diagnosis of complex endocrinological conditions like inferior petrosal vein sampling, adrenal vein sampling and renal vein renin sampling to name a few.

5. AV MALFORMATIONS AND FISTULA – Arteriovenous malformations and arteriovenous fistulas can be congenital or acquired conditions with abnormal shunting of blood often leading to large swellings in various regions of the body or affecting organs within the body causing severe symptoms at times like internal bleeding, cardiac failure,cosmetic deformatity etc. These are managed by endovascular techniques. Interventional radiologists study the vascular anatomy and hemodynamics of these lesions and use vascular closure embolization techniques to effective manage these complex conditions.

6. ANGIOPLASTY/ ANEURYSM AND STENTING– A wide variety of vascular narrowings and occlusions are treated by interventional radiologists. These include aorta and peripheral arterial narrowings which lead to limb pain/claudication, narrowings in visceral arteries like mesenteric arteries.

7. CENTRAL VENOUS ANGIOPLASTY/STENTING: Venous occlusions of the periphery or central veins which lead to limb swelling or main venous channels of the body like inferior vena cava etc are dilated and sometimes reinforced by a metallic construct called a stent.

8. PERCUTANEOUS VERTEBROPLASTY-This technique involves reinforcing collapsed bony vertebrae in the spinal column by bone cement.  They effectively relieve the pain associated with these fractured collapsed vertebrae and give significant relief to these patients who suffer from restricted mobility due to the presence of pain.

9. In certain patients with advanced malignancies to provide palliative pain relief nerve plexuses can be blocked by image guided injections of alcohol or compbination of drugs. Celiac ganglion block, superior hypogastric block, internal pudendal nerve block to name a few.