1. PERMACATH INSERTION– A Permacath insertion is the placement of a special IV line into the blood vessel in your neck or upper chest just under the collarbone. This type of catheter is used for short-term dialysis treatment. The catheter is then threaded into the right side of your heart (right atrium). The procedure involves creating a tunnel under the skin to thread the other portion of the catheter out through the skin. This tunnelling process greatly reduces the risk of an infection and allows the catheter to remain in for a long period of time (one-12 months). It is day care procedure done under local anaesthesia.

2. AV fistula angioplasty– Draining veins/ dialysis fistula often gets blocked after multiple sessions of dialysis. Percutaneously a balloon is inflated at stenosis site to relieve the stenosis.

3. Central venous stenosis angioplasty (Brachio-cephalic vein angioplasty)-Central vein stenosis is common because of the placement of venous access and cardiac intravascular devices and compromises vascular access for dialysis. Endovascular intervention with angioplasty and/or stent placement is is recommended for these conditions.